Influence of in vitro gastric digestion of olive leaf extracts on their bioactive properties against H. pylori.

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  • 24 junio 2022
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastric digestion of two olive leaf extracts (E1 and E2) on their chemical composition and bioactive properties against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), one of the most successful and prevalent human pathogens. HPLC-PAD/MS analysis and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of both olive leaf extracts were carried out before and after their in vitro gastric digestion. The results showed that gastric digestion produced modifications of the chemical composition and bioactive properties of both olive leaf extracts. The main compounds in the extract E1 were hydroxytyrosol and its glucoside derivatives (14,556 mg/100 g), presenting all the identified compounds a more polar character than those found in the E2 extract. E2 showed a higher concentration of less polar compounds than E1 extract, with oleuropein (21,419 mg/100 g) being the major component. Gastric digestion during the fasted state (pH 2) induced an overall decrease of the most identified compounds. In the extract E1, while the anti-inflammatory capacity showed only a slight decrease (9% of IL-8 production), the antioxidant properties suffered a drastic drop (23% of ROS inhibition), as well as the antibacterial capacity. However, in the extract E2, these changes caused an increase in the anti-inflammatory (19% of IL-8 production) and antioxidant activity (9% of ROS inhibition), which could be due to the hydrolysis of oleuropein and ligustroside into their main degradation products, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but the antibacterial activity was reduced. Gastric digestion during fed state (pH 5) had less influence on the composition of the extracts, affecting in a lesser degree their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, although there was a decrease in the antibacterial activity in both extracts similar to that observed at pH 2.